When an individual has to modify his diet due to a specific pathology or alteration he should go to a nutritionist to indicate the diet appropriate to his situation. The nutritionist is a professional who has an extensive knowledge of the individual needs of nutrients, food and their nutritional contribution, using dietary medicine applied will give food indications guiding the specific therapeutic diet in each case. There are different types of therapeutic diets according to the pathology to treat.
In order to propose the appropriate diet to each patient, a complete interview must be carried out, in which the basic aspects detailed in the following points should be discussed:
- Assessment and revision of the clinical history should note the most representative aspects of the patient’s medical history; Diseases, surgical interventions, medication taking, family history of illness, among others.
- Assessment of body composition, the minimum basic data such as weight and height should be taken in addition, in some cases, it is important to take certain body perimeters or folds of fat. In addition, the patient should bring the latest analysis to check the altered parameters and detect if there is any aspect of improvement by modifying the feeding.
- Assessment of food intake is the collection of data from the usual diet, it will be important to know the starting point to design the modifications that the patient needs. There are different records to use:
- Frequency questionnaire of food consumption: allows assessing the type of food and the habitual frequency of consumption. Foods are presented in a list of 50 to 100 references in which the patient must mark their consumption according to whether it is daily, weekly, monthly, etc. It is a good reference to know the type of food consumed but will not be enough to make an estimate of the daily caloric intake of the diet is why the following questionnaires will be more specific to obtain this information.
- Reminder 24h: records what the patient has consumed the 24h before the time of the visit. The amounts consumed, food characteristics and type of preparation should be well detailed. The nutritionist must go into detail for each concept to be able to accurately estimate the intake and it will be a form of training to show what will ask the patient to register in the next questionnaire,
- Dietary record: the patient is asked to record everything consumed during a certain period of time, usually a minimum of three days is indicated, one of which must be a holiday. This record is important so that the patient becomes aware of what Consumes in its day to day. There are applications and systems that allow the virtual registration of the information and even make a record with photographs of everything consumed throughout the day.
- Dietary assessment: with all the data collected can be made accurate calculations and generate the diet adapted to the patient.
Next, we will remember the most important aspects to consider when designing a diet to treat a specific pathology:
- The indicated dietary guidelines should not be harmful to health.
- The amendments proposed should be cautious.
- The prescription diet should be positive, should not be forbidden food.
- The stage in which the pathology is found must be considered since the pattern must be adapted according to the evolution and tolerance of the patient.
The majority of therapeutic diets have some elements in common, then we will review the genetic concept of some of these diets:
- Hyper diets: It is the diet that requires increasing some nutrient or element of the diet, we would find, for example, diets that increase the energy supply, hypercaloric or increase the protein, hyper protein supply.
- Hypo or low diets in : It is the diet that requires reducing some nutrient or element of the diet, we would find, for example, the diets that need to reduce the energy supply, hypocaloric, those that reduce the contribution of Sodium hypersonic or low sodium or diets Which require reducing the contribution of cholesterol, low cholesterol.
- Diets without: Are the diets in which you must completely eliminate some element due to some allergy of the patient and an example would be gluten-free or lactose-free diets.
In this post, we have reviewed the most distinctive aspects of the design of diets for specific pathologies,
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